This article is about the Roman state. For information regarding the city, see Rome (city), and for information on the Roman Commonwealth, see Roman Commonwealth.
Rome (or, alternatively, informally the Roman Empire or formally Senātus Populusque Rōmānus) is a long running nation that has been the world's dominant power for the better part of the past 2100 years. It has evolved from its early years as an autocratic institution centred around the Mediterranean into a global force that champions the central tenets of liberal democracy. Although Rome bills itself as a peacemaker, it has been known for its aggressive tendencies.
- 1 Quotes
- 2 At A Glance
- 3 Roman History
- 3.1 Early years (1140 BC-509 BC)
- 3.2 Senate Age (509 BC-27 BC)
- 3.3 Principate (27BC-AD 193)
- 3.4 Severan Empire (193-260)
- 3.5 Crisis of the Third Century (260-284)
- 3.6 The Dominate (285-325)
- 3.7 Christian Empire (325-378)
- 3.8 The Collapse of the 5th Century (378-479)
- 3.9 Classical Restoration (479-636)
- 3.10 Rise of the Arabs and Lombards (636-768)
- 3.11 Medieval Empire (768-1072)
- 3.12 Vestigal Period (1072-1492)
- 3.13 Exploration and Enlightenment (1492-1742)
- 3.14 The New Imperial Revolution (1742-1916)
- 3.15 World Wars and the Establishment of Democracy (1916-94)
- 3.16 Conflict with Virtue (1994-present)
- 4 Government
- 5 Society
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
“The Romans have always believed that there are two ‘worlds’ on this planet- their own and everyone else. They don’t necessarily despise ‘the other world’ and will accommodate its ideas should it benefit the state, but ask any Roman what world they’d like to live in and 9 times out of 10 they will say their own.”- Rudolph Percy, British historian, lecture at York University, 1996.
At A Glance
Nation Name: Senatus Populusque Romanus
Independence: April 21, 753 BC (traditional, archeological discoveries could put this date much earlier)
Population: (see list of countries by GDP)
Official Language(s): English, Latin
Government Type: Constitutional Monarchy
Head of State: Caesar Villianus Puerignis Romanus Erasmus (Erasmus)
Head of Government: Caesar Villianus Puerignis Romanus Erasmus (Erasmus)
Official Religion: None
Largest Religion: Jovianism, Petrine Catholicism
Economy Type: Mixed
Currency: No official term exists, as each denomination has a different legal name. The most common unit- and the one most often used as an "unofficial" title- is the denarius (
x), where X=US$1. For more information, see Roman currency units.
Constitution: Yes (called the Twelve Tables officially, though "Roman Constitution" is used informally)
Summer Time: Yes
Calling Code: +753
Internet TLD: .rom
Maritime Boundary (nm): 24
Aircraft Code: SR
Military Strength: Fluctuates, but it stays mostly at 2% of the entire population
Military Capability Score (out of 100, rating by Worldwide Defence Trade Association (WDTA)): 100 (1st)
Technological Innovation Score: Military (WDTA): 100/100 (top), Scientific (University poll): 100/100 (top), Other (University poll): 100/100 (top)
Economic Rating (by Standard & Poor): 100/100 (Strong) (See list of countries by GDP)
Economic Freedom Index (by Standard & Poor): 75/100 (mostly free- some government regulation, mostly in terms of anti-monpolism and providing assistance to the poor)
Health Care Rating (by Doctors Without Borders): 100/100 (1st)
Health Care System: Universal, although "user fees" are charged for non-life threatening situations (such as a regular checkup or physiotherapy)
Political Freedom Index (by Reporters Without Borders): 100/100 (top)
Drug Laws: Recreational drug trade is legal, but licensed.
Gun Control: Gun ownership is allowed, but one must be licensed (and free of a criminal record) to own one.
Environmental Policy Rating (by Greenpeace): 65/100 (attention is paid to enviornmental concerns, but it can take a back seat from time to time)
Main article: History of Rome
See also: List of Roman Emperors
Early years (1140 BC-509 BC)
1140 BC: First known settlement in the area that would later become Rome is found at the Capitoline Hill, though it is not known what the settlement was called or who occupied the area.
1090 BC: Year of the “Trade Scroll Document” that counts Rome as a city in a traveler’s notebook. It is the first recorded instance of Rome in history, though its foundation date- and status as a state- is unknown.
April 21, 753: Traditional foundation date given for The Roman State, although the events surrounding it are simply legends.
753-510: Traditional rule of the Etruscan Kings in Rome.
742: Correspondence between Roman King Gnaeus and Veiian King Tuntle II is the first recorded instance of an independent Roman State.
Senate Age (509 BC-27 BC)
509: Romans expel King Tarquin The Proud and establish the Roman Republic (under the Roman Senate).
496: Battle of Lake Regillus: Romans defeat Latin League. First attested battle of Romans with external enemies.
486: Beginning of conflicts with the Aequi and Vosci.
482: Beginning of the war with Veii, the main Etruscan centre of power.
471: Council of the Plebs established.
457: Battle of Mt. Algidus: Aequi defeats the Romans.
451: Twelve Tables passed. These laws would provide the basis for future Roman law, eventually evolving into the world's oldest constitution.
c. 450-300: Creation and expansion of the Office of the Qaestor (junior magistrate) in Rome. Over the course of the Early Republic the Plebians (lower/middle class) would be able to win positions within the Senate, eventually leading to the election of Lucius Sextius Sextinus Lateranus as consul (the highest rank in the Republic).
406: Anxur, a city to the south of Rome (now a neighbourhood in modern Rome), is captured by the Romans.
396: Romans capture Veii.
390: Gauls sack Rome.
388: Romans defeat Aequi.
386: Romans defeat Latins, Volscii and Hernici
377: Latins defeated at Satricum.
366: Ludi Romani games established.
343: Romans initiate hostilities with the Samnites, the hill tribe of the Apennines.
340-38: Great Latin War: Romans annex Latium.
328: Romans increase influence over Campania and Etruria.
304: Romans establish significant dominance over central and southern Italy after the Second Samnite War (First: 343-41, Second: 326-04).
300: Lex Valeria passed by a tribune of the plebs granted the legal right to appeal against any capital sentence passed on a Roman citizen.
299: Nar annexed by Rome.
298-290: Third Samnite War: Romans annex Samnium and Campania.
282-75: War with King Pyrrhus of Epirus, ending in Roman victory. First Roman-instigated war against non-Italians.
264: Munera (gladiatorial games) held for the first time. Volsinii captured: Roman dominance over Italy secured. Start of First Punic War with Carthage.
238: End of First Punic War: Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily annexed to Rome and become the first Roman provinces.
229-28: First Illyrian War with Queen Teuta.
219: Second Illyrian War: Romans annex Illyria.
218-02: Second Punic War: Battles of Cannae and Lake Trasimene underscore early Carthaginian successes, but Battle of Zama (near Carthage) ends War in victory for the Romans.
214-05: First Macedonian War: Stalemate.
200-197: Second Macedonian War: Victory of the Romans over Phillip V at Cynoscephalae.
192-88: Syrian War with Antiochus.
191: Annexation of the area that would later become Cisalpine Gaul.
171-68: Third Macedonian War: Macedonia and Epirus plundered.
167: Taxation of Roman citizens abolished. Only allies can be taxed.
154-38: Lusitanian and Second Celtiberian Wars: annexation of Spain complete.
150-46: Fourth Macedonian War and Third Punic War: Macedonia and Carthage annexed to Rome.
146: Achaean War: Romans annex Greece.
129: King Attalus of Pergamum bequeaths his kingdom to Rome upon his deathbed.
113: Cimbri and Teutons begin raids into Roman territory- first Germanic attacks on Rome.
112-06: War with Jugurtha of Numidia ends in Roman victory by Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
96: Romans annex Cyrene.
91-88: Social War between Rome and its Italian allies: ends when Rome bestows Roman citizenship onto all Italians.
88: Sulla marches on Rome, first person to do so in history. Pontus King Mithridates orders massacre of Italians and Romans in Greece after invading: 110,000 killed.
86: Marcus Tullius Cicero completes his first work, De Inventione Rhetorica.
86-83: Sulla defeats Mithridates and Marius, the latter in a civil war within Roman territory.
81: Sulla appoints himself dictator and reforms Republican law.
74-64: Third Mithridatic War: Pompey defeats Mithridates and consolidates Roman control into Eastern Asia Minor, reaching into Armenia. A year later, Mithridates dies.
73-71: Spartacus leads a slave revolt, but is defeated after initial successes.
67: Syria annexed to Rome.
59: First Triumvirate (Crassus, Julius Caesar and Pompey) established, Senate pushed aside for first time in history.
58-51: Julius Caesar annexes Gaul to Rome.
49-46: Julius Caesar and Pompey fight a civil war: Julius Caesar ends it in his victory at Philippi.
46-44: Dictatorship of Julius Caesar. Ends with his assassination on the Ides of March, 44.
43-40: Second Triumvirate of Lepidus, Marc Antony and Octavian, Julius Caesar’s adopted son.
36-31: Civil war between the members of the Second Triumvirate: ends at the Battle of Actium off the Egyptian coast with Octavian’s victory. Egypt annexed to Rome.
Principate (27BC-AD 193)
27: Octavian becomes Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome.
16: Noricum annexed to Rome.
c. AD 9: Empire extended to the Rhine and Danube frontiers.
5-9: Augustus’ campaign in Germania ends with the defeat in the Teutoburg Forest.
14: Death of Augustus. Succeeded by his adopted son Tiberius.
14-68: Claudian Dynasty rules Rome.
43-44: Lycia and Judea become Roman provinces.
46: Britain is conquered by the Roman Emperor Claudius.
64: Great Fire in Rome: afterwards, the Roman Emperor Nero goes on a massive rebuilding program.
53-67: Ministry of Paul the Apostle- spread of Christianity throughout the Empire.
67-71: First Jewish Revolt ends with Titus’ capture of Jerusalem.
68: Year of Four Emperors: Vespasian eventually claims the throne.
80-82: Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre by Vespasian and his son Titus.
93-96: Reign of Terror by Emperor Domitian.
96: Ascension of Emperor Nerva. Beginning of the era of the Five Good Emperors.
98: Tacitus finishes two of his books, the Agricola and the Germania.
101-117: The Emperor Trajan annexes Armenia, Dacia and Mesopotamia, makes Assyria into a Roman vassal.
114-18: Second Jewish Revolt crushed by Trajan and Hadrian.
117: Hadrian, upon succeeding Trajan, abandons Mesopotamia.
122-28: Hadrian’s Wall in Britain completed.
133-35: Third Jewish Revolt, crushed brutally by Hadrian: Jerusalem renamed Aeolia Capitolina.
142-45: Romans move into Scottish lowlands: Antoine Wall built.
175-80: Emperor Marcus Aurelius writes his “Meditations”.
180: Death of Marcus Aurelius: End of “Five Good Emperors” Era.
184: Caledonian and Pict raids force Roman withdrawal in Britain to Hadrian’s Wall.
Severan Empire (193-260)
Main article: Severan Empire
193: Septimius Severus ascends to the throne. Invades and annexes Parthia (202).
203-06: Severus campaigns and annexes India.
205: Foundation date for Calalus, the first Roman colony across the Atlantic.
206: Severus annexes Caledonia, Nubia and Ethiopia.
206-10: War of the Worlds: Romans fight with China, victory by Rome at Luoyang brings China into the Roman Empire. Client states established in Parthia, India and China.
212: Caracalla ascends to the throne. Citizenship bestowed to all free men in the Empire.
225: Pumerus declares Calalus independent, he maintained nominal allegiance to the Empire but Rome's effective control over the area was over.
230: Foundation of the Sassanid Dynasty in Parthia.
238: Year of the 10 Emperors: loss of Mesopotamia, Parthia, India and China as a result of the chaos.
242: Shapur I gains the throne and successfully revolts against the Romans- establishment of Sassanid Persia.
247: Emperor Phillip celebrates Rome’s 1000-year anniversary. It is the only year of peace from 238 to 285.
251: Emperor Decius killed fighting against the Goths.
253: Antioch captured by Shapur I.
Crisis of the Third Century (260-284)
Spring 260: Emperor Valerian captured by Shapur in battle along the Euphrates.
Summer 260: The Palmyrene Legion, created by local figure Zenobia, repulses a Persian attack on Syria and later an Arab assault on Egypt. Emperor Gallienus recognizes Zenobia as "Empress of Egypt, Palestine and Syria" (later referred to as the "Palmyrene Empire" since that was Zenobia's capital) to reward her for her efforts. Palmyra is nominally a client state of Rome but it is effectively independent from the start.
261: Gaul secedes: Gallic Empire established.
271: Goths capture Dacia.
272: Outlaw Gaius Marinus founds the Order of the Rose in Rome in response to the relative collapse of law and order around the Empire. The Order, which continues to this day, recruits other outlaws to assist law enforcement to keep the peace.
270-75: Aurelian restores order, defeats Vandals, Goths, Persians and Gauls, restores boundaries of the Empire to pre-253 frontiers (bar Dacia and the Palmyrene Empire).
The Dominate (285-325)
284: Diocletian ascends to the throne, ending 47 years of chaos. Radical reform of Roman administration and reorganization of the provinces.
284: Diocletian divides the Empire between four rulers- two “senior” and two “junior” Emperors, with one of each in each half of the Empire (West: Mediolanum. East: Nicomedia).
284: Capital moved from Rome to Mediolanum. First walls built around Rome since the Gallic invasion of 390 BC.
311-24: Death of Diocletian. Civil War breaks out, with Constantine emerging as sole Emperor of Rome.
Christian Empire (325-378)
325: Council of Nicaea: Christianity now the official State religion
326: Constantine chooses Byzantium as the Empire’s new capital and renames it Constantinople in his honour.
337: Death of Constantine. Division of the Empire into three halves- West (Constantine II), Middle (Constans) and East (Constantius II). Constans defeats Constantine II at Aquileia and claims the West.
363: Battle of Ctesiphon: Emperor Julian defeats Persian King Shapur II, but is killed in battle.
The Collapse of the 5th Century (378-479)
378: Battle of Adrianople: Visigoths lay decisive defeat on Rome. Start of The Collapse.
387: Shapur III of Persia forces more Roman concessions: Armenia almost totally lost to Persia.
394-95: Empire reunited for the final time by Theodosius I The Great.
395: Olympic Games banned by Theodosius.
399: Ostrogoths invade and capture Galatia, Pisidia and Bythinia.
400: Alaric and the Visigoths invade Italy, capturing much of the south.
402: Flavius Stilicho, a Vandal working for Rome, defeats Alaric at Pollentia.
403: Capital of the Western Empire moved to Ravenna.
405: Emperor Honorius bans gladiatorial combat.
406: Franks cross the Rhine, establishing themselves as Roman vassals in upper Rhineland.
407: Britain abandoned by the Empire.
409: Vandals, Suevi and Alans invade and conquer Spain.
410: Alaric sacks Rome, the first external capture of Rome for 800 years.
411: Burgundians invade and annex lower Gaul.
412-13: Constantius III drives Visigoths from Italy.
429-39: Vandals annex north Africa.
430s: Roman General Flavius Aetius campaigns in Gaul, re-establishing some Roman control in the area.
441: Attila, King of the Huns, invades Thrace.
447: Attila invades Moesia.
451: Attila invades Gaul, ravaging the region before a defeat at the hands of a combined Roman-Gothic Army stops his progress.
455: Vandals sack Rome, power vacuum after the murder of Valentian III resolved when the Visigoths proclaim Avitus, Aetius’ former General, as Emperor.
465: Ricimer, the “Master of Soldiers”, proclaimed “patrician of the West” by Eastern Emperor Leo.
466: Visigoths begin conquest of Aquitaine and Spain.
468: Revolt of Osiris ends Roman rule in Nubia and Fezzan, land bridge to Ethiopia severed. At this point, Ethiopia is effectively independent, although the territory still occasionally sent tributes to Rome and appointed its own prefect. It is also here that a revival of ancient Egyptian culture occurred (though it wasn't until 1955 where the Egyptian gods would regain their supremacy), which Ethiopia would maintain to the present.
472: Ricimer proclaims Olybius, then Glycerius, Emperor of the West.
474: Julius Nepos gains the throne on the Eastern Empire’s (now ruled by Zeno) backing.
475: Hunnic General Orestes installs Romulus Augustulus as Emperor of the West, Nepos flees to Dalmatia.
476: Odoacer, the “Master of Troops” in the West, deposes Romulus Augustulus, recognizes grudgingly Nepos as his Emperor (upon the request of Zeno).
Classical Restoration (479-636)
479: Battle of the Po Valley: Nepos defeats Odoacer, becomes Emperor of the West and consolidates Roman control in a strip of land stretching from Rome to Ravenna.
481: Rome again becomes capital of the West.
482: Nepos defeats a combined Germanic invasion into Roman territory. Massive reforms of the Roman state bring back a lot of the old Roman traditions, including the gladiatorial games. Christianity still chief religion, though the pagan religion is still practiced.
483: Nepos establishes the Senate as the rulers over the city of Rome (proper).
485: Nepos invades and annexes southern Italy, becoming the second province of the revitalized Western Empire.
487: Zeno calls Nepos a “traitor”, refusing to recognize him as Emperor of the West.
493: Combined Roman-Germanic Army defeats an Ostrogothic invasion of the city of Rome. Ostrogoths, under Theodoric the Great, captures North Italy. Zeno now recognizes Nepos as Emperor of the West.
495: Death of Julius Nepos. Replaced by his son Marcellus.
527: Eastern General Belisarius annexes Vandal kingdom of North Africa to the Eastern Empire.
533: Ostrogothic kingdom conquered by Belisarius.
534: Upon Marcellus' death, the Senate votes to betow the Western crown on Justinian, formally reuniting the Empire. It is said this was done according to Marcellus' wishes contained in his will, though this has been disputed.
553: Ostrogothic counterattack, repulsed by Roman General Narses.
554: Romans occupy southern Spain, reconquer Lusitania.
562: Justinian makes peace with the Persians, with Rome and Persia extinguishing the Palmyrene Empire and dividing it amongst themselves.
575: Slavs pour into the Balkans.
576: Lombard invasion of Italy, annexes northern part.
578: Roman Senate calls for help from Constantinople regarding the Lombard invasion.
580: When Senate’s call is refused, the Senate elects Cornelius Gaius Rimbosius (Rimbosa) as Emperor of the West, establishing a demarcation line around the old region of Latium.
603-27: Great War between the Eastern Empire and the Persians. Persians conquer Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia, Syria later recaptured by Heraculis.
608: Roman Emperor Regulus issues Edict of Recognition, a statement that formally recognizes the existence of other sovereign states. Edict marks the first time Rome makes a concerted effort to establish friendly relations with its neighbours, allowing a rebirth within the Empire.
610: Eastern Emperor Heraculis reorganizes the remaining Eastern provinces and the Eastern state as a whole: Greek instead of Latin now used. State now referred to as “Byzantium”, though at this stage it is just a historian’s term- the state still considered itself “Roman”.
636: Battle of Yarmuk River: Arabs defeat Byzantines.
637-655: Rome, seeing an opportunity to regain lands lost to the Byzantines, attempt numerous negotiations for an alliance with the Arabs, having limited success.
Rise of the Arabs and Lombards (636-768)
642: Romans defeat an Avar force near Venice.
642: Byzantine forces defeated at Heliopolis by the Arabs, Egypt falls to the Arab invaders.
650: Shipping conflict off the coast of Epirus. First of many squabbles between Byzantium and Rome.
653: First Arab assault on Rome.
666: Pope Vitalian declares this year as the “Year of the Beast” and predicts a year full of plague and unhappiness. The year passes rather uneventfully.
691: Lombards penetrate southwards in Italy, capture most of Roman possessions in the Italian peninsula.
694: Start of the “Fifty Years’ Struggle”, the world’s longest siege by the Lombards on Rome.
699: Fall of Carthage ends Byzantine dominance west of Sicily.
701: Second Arab assault on Rome. The Arabs tried to co-ordinate the assault with the Lombards but disagreements between the two failed to bring this to fruition.
702: Lombards capture Quirinial Hill, the northernmost of the “Seven Hills of Rome”, but their assault southwards is repulsed.
715: Lombards capture the Aventine and Caelian Hills at the south of the city.
726: Lombards reach maximum extent in Rome, reducing Roman territory to the Capitoline Hill and its surroundings.
728: Emperor Marcus II negotiates a tribute that spares a Lombard assault on the Capitoline Hill.
734: Ascent of Emperor Nerva II turns the tide for the Romans against the Lombards, Nerva recaptures Palatine Hill.
744: Nerva expels Lombards from the city of Rome and begins reacquisition of Latium. End of the Fifty Years’ Struggle.
747: Nerva recaptures Latium and Etruria from the Lombards.
Medieval Empire (768-1072)
768: With Roman help, the Franks successfully expel the Arabs from Gaul and establish a Roman client kingdom under Charles I, who would later become Charlemagne. Because his mother was Roman, Charlemagne had an interest in reviving the Western Empire and sought the acceptance of the Senate and the Emperor, Trajan II, and his army consisted of mainly Roman mercenaries. This endeared him to the Roman people, but Trajan viewed him as a usurper.
774: Treaty of Civitavecchia: With public opinion and the threat of the Lombards forcing his hand, Charlemagne is officially crowned as “junior Emperor” by Trajan II. The treaty reaffirmed Charlemagne's status as a Roman client state, with the Franks and the Romans agreeing to turn their attention against Byzantium and the Lombards, with the intent of reuniting the Empire by force.
778: Rome annexes most of the Italian peninsula from the Lombards with the help of Charlemagne.
800: Death of Trajan II by Pope Leo III leads to the Pope crowning Charlemagne as “Emperor of the West”- this formally annexed the Frankish lands to Rome and ended their client state status.
811: Charlemagne captures Constantinople, forces Byzantine Emperor Michael I Rangabe into exile. Charlemagne officially proclaims the Empire reunited, though the threat of a war between Charlemagne and Rangabe causes Charlemagne to renounce this claim a year later.
814: Battle of the Carpathian Pass: Charlemagne dies in battle repulsing an attack on the Empire by the Leonid Kingdom, in the only contemporary record of the kingdom's existence. Though later accounts of the Leonids asserts they were actual "lion people", the contemporary records of this battle note only that the kingdom's army used lions in battle.
840-43: Civil war amongst the successors of Louis the Pious, leading to the Treaty of Verdun that forced Rome to recognize the independence of the Franks, who take Gaul and Germany for themselves.
844: Romans capture Munich from the Franks after the Franks attempt an assault on Italy. Start of the Roman-Frankish War.
846: Romans capture Trier and Hesse.
847: Roman assault on Paris is beaten back by the Franks.
848: Romans capture Dresden.
849: Treaty of Berlin ends the Roman-Frankish War with the Franks recognizing Roman suzerainty over Germany and the Romans recognizing the Frankish claim over Gaul.
850-990: Rome undergoes over 140 years of building projects that strengthens Rome’s prestige.
912: Romans capture Bremen.
945: Rome annexes Holstein after a brief battle with the Danes.
990-92: Paul II dies without any heirs, leading to succession battles before Paul III, Paul II’s nephew, assumes the throne.
992-1188: Pauline Dynasty in Rome sees the Romans expand their territory in Central Italy into Beneventum and Perugia.
1011: Byzantine Emperor Basil II routs Roman troops invading Corinth, exacting a heavy tribute from Rome.
1022: Romans defeated by Canute the Great at Lubek.
1025: Paul III defeats Basil’s attempt to capture Beneventum, reverses treaty of 1011.
1036-1042: Roman-Danish War ends in the Roman annexation of Denmark, largest extent of the Roman Empire since Julius Nepos.
1054: Great Schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches after the Patriarch of Constantinople refused to submit to Roman authority.
Vestigal Period (1072-1492)
1072: Revolt of Trier leads to a peace deal where Rome effectively loses control of northern Italy, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark to area nobles. The nobility still swore an allegiance to the Emperor and the Pope, but Roman authority was nominal at best- the nobles were practically independent.
1089-99: First Crusade against the Seljuks in aid of the Byzantines, Romans send troops to aid the Crusade and establish their own protectorate in Syria.
1138-55: Papal-Roman Wars: series of small conflicts between Roman and Papal forces as the two fought for domination of Central Italy, conflicts end with the Treaty of Vatican City establishing the two states as formal allies. It is around this time that sporadic persecutions of the pagan faith occurred, and would continue for the next four and a half centuries.
1204: Romans join in the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, formally proclaim the Empire reunited upon the capture of the city. Greece is formally annexed to the Empire, while the Byzantine heirs rule in exile in Nicaea.
1224-54: Byzantines start an offensive against Roman territory in Greece, reducing their holdings to Constantinople by the end of 1254.
1259: Romans rout the Mongols at Trieste, ending the Mongol advance in Europe.
1261: Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus captures Constantinople from the Romans, expelling them from their previously acquired territories from the Fourth Crusade.
1265: Michael captures southern Italy in an attempt to reunite the Empire himself.
1270: Michael reaches Rome and captures it after a brief raid, proclaiming the Empire reunited. Roman Emperor Julian Orestes Ravennus escapes with the Pope to Nice, handed to Ravennus by the Kingdom of Arles.
1279: Ravennus recaptures Rome with Arelatian help, restoring Roman-Byzantine split. Arles receives Nice back as a “thank you” for helping the Romans.
1285: Romans capture Rimini.
1292: First Roman-Venetian War ends with Roman victory off the coast of Rimini.
1304: Second Roman-Venetian War begins.
1307: Battle of Cervia: Roman navy suffers huge setback at the hands of the Venetians.
1310: Venetians attempt siege of Rimini but are repulsed.
1312: Venetians raid Rimini a second time, capture the city and kill Emperor Caracalla II, ending the Second Roman-Venetian War.
1312-14: Revolts occur across the state, three Emperors killed in a span of three years.
1314-70: Primus Marcellus begins the Marcellus Dynasty. All Emperors numerically assigned- “Primus” (1314), “Secondus” (1314-33), “Tetrus” (1333-66) and “Quadrus” (1366-70). Period marked with a marked decline in Papal-Roman relations, as Secondus expelled the Pope to Avignon in 1316 after a dispute, a policy maintained by his descendants.
1323-61: Numerous attempts by the Romans and Byzantines to legally unite are partaken to counter the rise of the Ottoman Turks in Anatolia, but continuous squabbles by the Emperors meant that the actions were ultimately ineffective.
1392: Jovian II ends the “Babylonian Captivity” of the Papacy, allows them to return to Rome.
1414: Jovian captures Ravenna, formally establishing Roman rule from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Adriatic Sea.
1422: Opening of the Ostia Beach Resort, the first public beach resort in Europe intended for commoners. The resort is still in operation today.
1434: Romans capture L’Aquila.
1444: Battle of Varna- Ottomans defeat a European force led by Rome meant to come to the aid of Byzantium. The subsequent defeat starts the decline of Roman-Papal relations.
1453: Fall of Constantinople, Byzantine territory reduced to the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Morea.
1460: Palace intrigue sees the death of Trebizond Emperor David and the ascension of his general, Theodore, in his place. A planned invasion of the Morea was put off to deal with Theodore.
1462: Theodore heroically defeats an attempted Ottoman invasion in Gothia, although the Ottomans still exact tribute from Theodore. Legend asserts that the Ottomans took a liking to Theodore and thus spared him, helping him take over the Despotate of Morea in exchange for the Ottoman annexation of Gothia.
1467: Spread of the printing press to Rome, which becomes a major hub for printing.
1481: Battle of Otranto: Romans decimate the Ottomans and end any attempt by the Turks to conquer Italy.
1482: Third Roman-Venetian War: Romans quickly advance through Venetian territory and sack Venice.
1492-95: Disastrous policies gut Roman economy, leading to the abdication of four Emperors in a five year span.
Exploration and Enlightenment (1492-1742)
1492-1500: Voyages of Christopher Columbus for the Spanish Crown start the second Age of Exploration by European travellers, including many Roman ones.
1493: First Roman colony at Log Island.
1496: Romans defeat Spanish at Belem, allowing them to establish their first colony in Brazil.
1500-52: First Roman-Spanish War: A protracted series of conflicts between the Romans and the Spaniards over competing interests in overseas colonies. Despite a few Roman victories (mostly early in the conflict), Spain largely emerges victorious, as the Treaty of Marseille (1552) awarded Spain vast amounts of the Americas and other territories across the globe, with Rome receiving the Caribbean region of the Americas and few scattered outposts across the world. Most of these outposts would be among the Pacific islands, control of which was still disputed by Spain after the Treaty's signing.
1501-25: Reign of Aurelian III sees reversal of economic fortunes through needed reforms.
1526-42: Period of the “One Hundred Emperors”: massive civil war fought between the repressed pagans and Christian factions within Rome. Numerous Emperors installed by both sides only to be overthrown mere months or even weeks later, 100 emperors literally rule in this period. The civil war was inspired by the rise of Lutheranism, as the pagans saw the Church weak enough to attack.
1542: Rise of Decius III Capitolinus to the throne as a 14-year-old. The civil war hit a stalemate at this point, but is ended when Decius and the Senate reform the Twelve Tables, which now grants basic rights and freedoms, including freedom of choice, expression and freedom of religion. Decius founds the Capitoline Dynasty, which lasts for almost 200 years and is marked by progressive policies that established Rome as a “world power”.
1547: Papal revolt defeated by Decius, treaty forces the Papacy to accept the new look Roman society.
1555-70: Decius becomes the first European ruler to sign treaties with Muslim rulers, first with the Ottomans in 1555 and signing diplomatic and economic deals with the Safavids (1562) and Moghuls (1570).
1572-1584: Second Roman-Spanish War: Dispute in the Pacific draws the Romans into the conflict between Holland and England against Spain, evolving into a separate conflict between Rome and Spain that sees the Spanish Empire (sans the East Indies, which go to the Dutch, its North American territories and the Americas west of the Amazon Rainforest) be absorbed into the Roman Empire.
1600-1700: Industrial Revolution in Rome. Series of important innovations such as the steam engine (1633), the evening out of the iron-making process (1646) and textile spinners (1657) allows for greater mechanization of the Roman economy, allowing more to be produced at a greater pace. Roman standards of living increase tenfold.
1622: Romans establish a second colony in North America, claiming Numus Island.
1625: Romans move on to the mainland, establish the “City of New Rome”, which would later become “Navale Ursum” in 1702.
1637: Romans complete the conquest of Brazil, but are rebuffed in their attempt to invade Spanish Venezuela.
1650: Tysellius writes “The Responsibilities of the State”, an important treatise that postulated the creation of the “democratic monarchy”, the current Roman political system.
1666: Guardino publishes “The Power of Reason”, arguing for the “separation of church and state”. Within the book, he gives a name to the revival of Rome's ancient ways in the wake of the Capitoline Dynasty- “modern classicism”- and argues that the adoption of ancient values of simplicity and logic helped Rome recover its greatness. This philosophy would help shape modern Rome, as well as influence countless other peoples in the late 20th century.
1670: Prudence publishes “Quia Femina” (“For Females”) that argues that the “pater familias” in Roman society need not be strictly male. This work would prove instrumental in influencing modern day feminism worldwide.
1678: First Roman-Haida War: Haida defeat the Romans outside of New Rome, halting Roman expansion further into mainland.
1691: Second Roman-Haida War: Romans inflict defeat on the Haida, allowing for expansion into the mainland.
1698-1702: Third Roman-Haida War: Complete subjugation of Haida lands, creation of “New Rome” as a colony (which later becomes “Yukon”), with a new capital created as “New Rome” that later becomes “Borealis” in 1824. Colony in the Pacific Northwest of North America becomes known as “Roman Columbia” and extends eastward to the Rocky Mountains and southward to the Fraser and Mechako Rivers.
1717: Romans attempt their first crossing of the Rocky Mountains, expedition ends with disappearance of the would-be settlers.
1724: Foundation of the colony of “Terra Australis” in present-day Australia.
1730: First conflict with the British, minor skirmish erupts when a Roman cargo ship is intercepted by the British Navy.
The New Imperial Revolution (1742-1916)
1742: Roman Revolution. Four years of internal strife over poor working conditions at Roman factories leads to a period of 30 Emperors ruling in that span, culminating in the Revolutionary year of 1742. The revolutionaries called for increased democracy- such as the election of the Senate and the Emperor- but did not succeed, however the strife ends when Marcus Aurelius II institutes minimum wage laws and other economic reforms that protected the workers.
1767: Marcus abolishes slavery, the first nation to do so.
1782: Romans defeat an invading British force that had crossed the Rocky Mountains into New Rome.
1788: Scottish fleet repulsed just off the northern Australian coast by Roman Admiral Barstus.
1790: Romans score decisive defeat of the British Navy which had attempted to assault Rome.
1791-95: George Vancouver leads the British to war against the Romans in the Pacific Northwest seeking British breakthrough in the Pacific. Vancouver defeats the Romans in the Battle of the Bridge and solidifies British holdings in the Pacific Northwest, preventing the Romans from making incursions into the Fraser Valley. Vancouver founds two forts that eventually will bear his name at the mouths of the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.
1797: Napoleon Bonaparte invades Italy and captures Rome. Napoleon officially declares a Republic with the Senate in power and forcibly removes Emperor Claudius V. The Roman people, who longed for democratic reform, took a liking to Napoleon after this act.
1799: Praetorian Guard successfully re-installs Claudius as Emperor, Republic temporarily abolished.
1802-06: The Great Australian War: British defeat the Romans and evict them from Australia, except in the southwest and on Tasmania.
1805-10: Simon Fraser, a fur trader, attempts to negotiate a peace between the Romans and British in the hopes of bringing the world’s two largest economies together. The Romans rename the river he sailed down as well as its valley in his honour.
1811: British defeat the Americans at Fort Vancouver at the mouth of the Columbia River, Treaty of 1818 establishes joint occupancy by the Americans and the British of the region stretching from the Roman boundary to the boundary of Spanish California.
1815: Napoleon, with his Empire crumbling, calls for Roman help, Claudius refuses and aids the Napoleonic defeat at Waterloo. The people again revolt and remove Claudius from power, re-establishing the Republic.
1816-25: Praetorian Guard and Republicans clash periodically for control of the Republic, ending with the victory of Appius Polybuis, who would re-establish the Empire under the title of Appius II.
1817: Romans formally annex coastal Iberia and southern Gaul after the Congress of Vienna re-establishes European order.
1818-24: Bolstered by a weakened Spanish state after the Napoleonic Wars, the Romans team up with revolutionary Simon Bolivar to evict the Spanish from their territories in Central and South America. Mexico, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina become independent, while the Romans formally annex Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and the rest of Central America, a colony rechristened “New Rome”, with eponymous capital established in the Yucatan.
1825-42: The Great Anglo-Roman War: Romans decisively defeat the British in North America, marching successfully from Borealis all the way to the Atlantic and Arctic coasts, effectively evicting the British Army from North America. The Treaty of Ottawa would establish Roman rule right to the border with New Brunswick, reducing British territory to Oregon (with Britain ceding the Fraser Valley), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and southern Baffin Island.
1830: Appius allows the Senate to be elected, but by wealthy landowners only.
January-May 1846: Romans repulse attempted American invasion of Roman Columbia.
March 1848: Third Republic declared when protests over suffrage force the abdication of Keylusus I.
October 1848: Pacantius III, then head of the Praetorian Guard, restores the Empire and expands suffrage.
1856-58: Russo-Roman War: Alaska is annexed to Rome.
1861-65: American Civil War: In response to reprisals against numerous slave revolts, the “free” (Northern) states declare their secession from the government. The Northern states ally with the Romans to counter the South and their alliance with Britain. After the Battle of Five Forks on December 23, 1865, the North emerges victorious.
1866: Following the Peace of Madrid, the United States is reconstituted as “free state” North, with the South becoming the Carolinian Empire. In exchange for the annexation of Texas, southern Florida, Nuevo Leon and the eastern Gulf Coast of Mexico, Rome agrees to sell its Canadian territory to the new U.S.
1875: Bolstered by successes in North America, Valerius III begins campaign to unite Italy, starts Fourth Roman-Venetian War.
1878: Russo-Turkish War concludes with the Congress of Berlin, most of Turkey's European possesions become independent (except Dacia, which is annexed to Russia) with the Byzantines (as part of the new "Achaean League") reclaiming southern Greece. Turkey retained Macedonia and Eastern Rumelia, however.
1882: Fourth Roman-Venetian War ends with the annexation of the Venetian Republic to Rome.
1883: Romans turn south, capture Pescara.
1884: Romans capture Campobasso.
1885: Romans capture Foggia.
1886: Romans capture Taranto.
1887: Byzantines intervene in Italy in an attempt to save the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
1888: Breakthrough in Southern Italy sees Romans capture Salerno and Lecce by the end of the year, turning their attention to Naples.
1889-90: Siege of Naples: Romans score decisive victory over the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, capturing their capital.
1891: After the Fall of Naples, treaty with the Byzantines formally recognizes Roman authority over the entire southern half of the Italian peninsula, with Byzantium agreeing not to contest Rome's claims to the entire peninsula.
1892: Romans turn northward, capture Grosseto.
1893: Livorno and Bologna both fall to Rome.
1895: Romans capture Genoa.
1903: Romans capture Turin and Milan.
1906: Florence finally succumbs to Roman forces, ending the millennium-long Republic of Florence.
1911: Verona falls to Rome, leading to the reuniting of most of the Italian peninsula under Roman rule.
1911-14: Balkan Wars see Ottomans officially driven out of Europe with Byzantium, Bulgaria and Serbia expanding their territories at Turkey’s expense.
1913: The entire Roman-ruled areas of the Italian peninsula is absorbed into the Roman Republic, along with Rome's Spanish and Gallic possesions. By the end of the year, the rest of the Italian peninsula- just the toe and heel- as well as Sicily are taken over by Rome and made into the province of Itally.
1915: Texas and its environs renamed the "Republic of Romairica" after a large influx of Roman settlers into the region over the previous few decades changed the demographics of the region.
World Wars and the Establishment of Democracy (1916-94)
1916: Vladimir Illyich Ulanov, better known as "Lenin", reappears after having gone missing for years in Roman territory at Jaluit in the Marshall Islands, requesting asylum. Roman officials fiercely debate his status for months before allowing him to leave for Russia in early 1917 after the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.
1917-18: Rome enters World War I to replace the departing Russians, the Romans' intervention turns the tide in the war in favour of the Triple Entende.
1919: Ascension of Keylusus II, longest serving Emperor in Roman history.
1920: Turmoil in Eastern Europe caused by the Bolshevik Revolution causes the Romans to intervene to fill a power vacuum. By the end of the year, eastern Dalmatia, the Banat and Romania become a Roman colony along with northern and eastern Italy as the “Empire of Rome West”, which becomes Rome’s most important colony along with New Rome.
1921: After the Bolshevik Revolution causes the collapse of the Russian Duma and raises fears of the establishment of a Communist dictatorship in Rome, Keylusus II reassures Romans by declaring that the office of the Emperor must be won via an election under universal suffrage. Terms will last for six years, though the first scheduled election won't take place until 1927.
1922: Byzantines, buoyed by Turkish difficulties, strike against the Ottomans and annex several provinces. Rome attempts to aid the Turks but after two disastrous defeats at Aleppo and Baghdad, Rome had to settle for the collapse of the Ottoman state and the acquisition of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf.
1927: Keylusus wins first Imperial election in Roman history with over 76% of the vote.
January 12, 1933: Keylusus commissions Imperial Highway System in both Italy and New Rome, spurring exponential economic growth across the Empire.
1939-42: World War II: Axis Powers defeat the Allies, although Roman territory is largely unaffected as the Axis failed to record any decisive victories against Rome.
1942: Omani Revolution evicts Roman forces from Oman.
January 23, 1951: The Battle of Lanak Pass, considered the “opening salvo” of the Cold War, is fought between Tibet and the Soviet Union, resulting in a Tibetan victory.
June-October 1951: Soviets annex Tibet, much to the consternation of world leaders including Keylusus.
November 1951: Soviets annex Bengal, increasing Cold War tensions.
1952: Scotland peacefully leaves the East Indies after diplomatic intervention by Rome. The Birean Empire is formed later in the year.
1954: To protect its extensive economic interests in the territory and fearing the dangers of instability, Rome annexes Senegambia (as "Senegal") following unrest between the Casarans and the Khorsunis in the area.
1955: The Roman Commonwealth is created as a new set of territories from old Roman colonial lands that have complete internal freedom but must still rely on Rome for defence and foreign relations. The Commonwealth is centred in Ethiopia, with its first territories being South Sweden and Yukon (comprising of Yukon proper, Alaska and northern Roman Columbia).
1956: Collapse of the French Republic leads to the Netherlands to fill most of the void, Romans move into eastern Gaul and Aquitaine and annex them into the Roman Republic.
1958-67: The Second Pax Romana: Keylusus heads Roman diplomatic missions across the world that negotiated peace in many conflicts, mostly to avert potentially damaging Cold War conflicts (most notably the Miquelon incident of 1962), leading to Rome gaining a reputation for being the world’s predominant peacemaker.
1960: After a referendum initiated by the region's Amerindian population, Peru establishes its independence from Rome as a member of the Commonwealth. However, a year later it descends into anarchy causing the rest of the New Roman Empire to vote to stay within the Empire.
1964-78: South China War eventually sees Rome defeat both the Soviet Union and the Americans who had been battling for supremacy in Indochina and southern China, with Indochina annexed to Rome as Khmerium.
1969: Despite protests from the “Summer of Love”, Keylusus refuses to end the ban on homosexuality or end capital punishment.
1970: Peace of Poznan after several small skirmishes erupt worldwide as a result of the end of Thomas Rotler's reign in Germany. The British Empire rebrands itself as England after losing much of its territory, while the Romans annexed Switzerland (incorporating it into the Roman Republic), Laapland and southern Sweden.
1975: After the death of Francisco Franco, Roman intervention in the resulting civil war causes coastal Spain to be annexed into the Roman Republic.
1984: Keylusus announces the entire Empire will be united by a public transit system known as Imperial Transit, with service extending to areas not previously served by existing services. All existing Transit agencies are merged.
October 19, 1987: Black Monday sees stock markets crash worldwide, leading to recessions in several countries, some of which that last until 1990.
1988: Treaty of Nicosia brokered by Rome formally establishes the Aramean Empire and Greece, carved out of former Russian territory, as independent states. Pressure from the Catholic Church to protect the Coptic minority- oppressed by the Soviets- causes Rome to intervene in Egypt and establish a protectorate there.
1989: Public outcry after the death of Gnaeus Tarsus at the Flavian Amphitheatre during a lion attack. Tarsus was a convicted serial killer whose punishment was to be in the ring with the lions, harkening back to ancient times.
1990-93: Third World War: Collapse of Carolina, the United States of America and the Soviet Union sees numerous changes in territory and new polities arise in North America and Europe. Rome, England (who succeeded Britain) and Aram seize the opportunity to stake territorial claims for themselves, with the territorial and political reorganization finalized by the Treaty of San Francisco on December 8, 1993.
December 22, 1992: Keylusus announces his retirement from Roman politics, having won 11 straight terms. Paul XII is elected to replace him the following year.
July-September 1993: Collapse of order in Mexico leads to the creation of numerous small polities informally renamed “The Drug Republics” due to their strong ties with the narcotic trade.
Conflict with Virtue (1994-present)
April 9, 1994: In response to the Mexican Drug Wars and fears of renewed English incursions, the North American Union, led by Rome and Aram, is created to help restore order amongst the old countries of North America.
September 12, 1994: Establishment of the Virtue Federation by over 200 polities with the intent of being an "anti-Roman" alliance, hostilities with Rome begin almost immediately.
1995: Paul reverses many of Keylusus’ socially conservative policies, legalizing marijuana, homosexuality and formally banning capital punishment across the Empire.
March 1999: Failure to raise public spending pushes income tax levels to 71%, with voters deciding to replace Paul with Rodin Hartian, who reigns in public spending.
May-March 2001: Collapse of the Hosni Mubarak government in Egypt when rioting led by radicals erupts all over Egypt. Egypt is informally split, with Roman authority continuing in Aswan but the Wahhabists take over in eastern Egypt while the Copts take over the west.
2003: Hartian proposes “Roman Confederacy” of former Roman lands, proposal fails to catch on.
November 2005: Failure of Roman Confederacy leads to Hartian’s electoral defeat at the hands of Valerius IV Maderia.
2007: A succession of battles taking place at various points around the globe between Virtue and Rome leads to fears of a Fourth World War, the Treaty of Windhoek ensures the status quo, albeit grudgingly on both sides.
2009: Khmerium gains autonomy as another Commonwealth territory.
March 2011: Valerius easily wins re-election, although elections for the Imperial Council produces more opposition for Valerius' policies.
January 2012: After an anti-Casaran terrorist attacks downtown Brazzaville, Senegal is annexed by Rome after a brief war. The Senegalese hail the Romans as "liberators" from an autocratic regime and as protectors against Khorsuni aggression. This move is slammed by Khorsun, who view Senegal as their territory, and Virtue, who decry it as an act of imperialism, which moves the Khorsuni nation and Virtue closer together.
January-June 2012: Outbreak of the Byzantine flu in Roman territory, causing massive social unrest as massive quarantine measures are implemented to reduce its spread. The outbreak formally ends when Roman researchers develop a host of treatment options in May and June for the disease, including medicines and vaccines.
February 2012-June 2013: Egypt, hit particularly hard by the Byzantine flu, experiences prolonged periods of massive social unrest, leading to movements calling for Egyptian independence. An attempted coup by Cardinal Wilhelm Claes (backed by Decius Tarsus) is defeated by the Roman Army, whose operations restore social order and the reestablish the protectorate over Egypt.
2014: Virtue threatens war over Egypt, backing the independence movements, causing Valerius to withdraw the protectorate over the territory. Valerius' job approval ratings plummet as a result, further exacerbated when Valerius is forced to maintain a Roman peacekeeping presence in parts of the country due to the inability of the Virtue peacekeepers to deal with factions within the country.
2015: Emergence of the "Virus" phenomenon in North America, fuelled by protests over Rome's ineffective policies in rebuilding North America. Rome asserts the Virus is a creation of Virtue, although Virtue has categorically denied this.
August-September 2016: Rome extracts significant concessions from Virtue, including reparations, after extensive police work reveals that Virtue ran a worldwide human trafficking ring from Birea and caused Aram to abandon its alliance with Rome, precipitating in that country's collapse.
October 2, 2016: Battle of Godthab ends with a decisive Roman victory over Virtue (who had attempted to overthrow Greenland's government), bringing Greenland and the Arctic Ocean (along with its abundant resources) into the Empire.
August 12, 2017: Treaty of Buffalo sees Rome, Virtue and other national powers come to an agreement over territorial claims and mutually recognized global governments. This sees Roman territories drastically reorganized (although territorial change is minimal) but greater global involvement worldwide by Roman authorities. The moves come after the Night of Anarchy sees 134 governments in various capacities collapse after thousands of seemingly spontaneous and simultaneous rioting worldwide.
March 15, 2017: Erasmus (born Bill Firechild) unseats Valerius as Roman Caesar after a contentious and bitter election. Erasmus is the first person to win an election against an incumbent Caesar who has held more than one term.
2017-2020: Erasmus enters a series of talks with Virtue aimed at easing tensions- some progress is made but no substantial deals are struck.
2021: In a major breakthrough in relations, Rome and Virtue agree to swap their respective client states over North America and Australia, though no actual transfer of land occurs.
Main article: Government of Rome
The Roman State is a fully functioning democracy, with all of its government officials elected directly by its people in a "majority rules" vote (or are appointed by an elected official, with some exceptions). As defined in the Twelve Tables (known informally as the Roman Constitution) the State is administered under a strict hierarchy of offices known as the Cursus Honorum, which spells out the exact progression of offices throughout the entire state, from the top (the Caesar) down to the lowest level (entry level municipal workers), with each official's duty spelled out. Only Roman citizens may hold government offices, with the Tables specifically stating that, outside of the position's direct superior (or, in the case of elected officials, a public vote, with a recall vote being able to be initiated at any time should 1% of the appropriate electorate desire it), non-citizenship is the only valid reason to deny someone public office. It is administered in theory as a collective whole but in practice, two different levels of territorial distinction exists- the Roman Republic and the Roman Imperium- with a third level, the Roman Commonwealth, sometimes grouped with the other two territories. All three recognize the Caesar as their head of state, but only the Republic and the Imperium are directly administered by the Caesar and his legislative body, the Plebian Council, led by the Tribune of the Plebs.
The core Roman territories, administered- as it has been since 509 BC- directly by the Roman Senate. The Senate officially administers nine different Imperial provinces- the Mediterranean territories, called "Romagna" (capital: Rome), Roman Columbia (or "Portugal", capital: Vancouver), Arabia (Dubai), America (Buffalo), Atlantis (Dallas), Congo (Brazzaville), Arctic (Fairbanks), Western Sahara (Colonia Sahara) and Asia Orientalem (Hong Kong)- each administered by a Consul (elected for a six year term via a direct popular vote within that territory). Another Consul is then elected from a direct popular vote across the entire Republic, bringing the total of Consuls to nine. After the five Consuls are determined, they get together and vote on which one becomes the "top" Consul, known as the "Ordinary Consul" (informally referred to as the "Republican Consul" or simply as the "Consul"), with the rest being named "Succent Consuls". The Ordinary Consul acts as the Senate's "speaker" and orders votes on legislation and receives proposals for the Consuls to consider. The Consuls do not have the power to draft legislation on their own, with their sole power being to amend or veto Senatorial proposals as they see fit, before enacting them into law. Each Consular decision is done via majority decision, and the Ordinary Consul only votes in those scenarios to break any ties.
Directly below the Consuls are their advisers, or magistrates (also elected via the popular vote but not divided by region), who can pass laws as they see fit. However, their decrees can be subject to a veto by the Consul or the other Senators (known as Curiate Tribunes), each of which represents their own "curia" (pl. "curiae"). One dissenting Curiate Tribune is enough to force a vote on a decree in the Senate, with all the other Curiate Tribunes needing to vote in favour of the measure for it to pass. Technically, the only power a Curiate Tribune has other than their ability to veto magisterial decrees is to call for the dissolution of the Senate and force a new election (which wipes out Consular decrees that are less than a week old), which only requires the agreement of the the other Curiate Tribunes for the measure to pass. In practice, because of the Tribunes' abilities to force an election, a Curiate Tribune can "suggest" a law and the Consul either enacts the law or (as is usually done) passes the measure on to the rest of the Senate for a vote. Each Curiae represents a territorial grouping of one million people, and is run by its own assembly (the Curiate Assembly). The Assembly is where the citizens of the curia gather to vote on measures brought forward in the Senate, with the Curiate Tribune bound to the result of their vote, as well as to recall its Curiate Tribune if it so chooses.
Technically, the Republic is officially classified as several Roman Imperial Provinces, but due to the fact it shares a collective administration (the Senate) and contains the overall capital of Rome, it is the most influential of the Imperial Provinces, often feeling like a state all by itself. It is by far the largest of the Imperial provinces and constitutes the vast majority of Rome's overall economic output, as, even by itself, it is the world's largest economy.
Technically, these are the collections of provinces, including the Roman Republic, that are tied directly to the government in Rome but, in modern parlance, the Imperium refers to those provinces that are not part of the Roman Republic. These provinces are run by a Proconsul, with each electing a legislative body known as the Provincial Assembly. Each Assembly has different standards for enacting laws, although each require at least a majority rules vote.
As demarcated by the Roman Constitution, the Imperial Provinces handle all affairs that are considered "internal"- such as educational curricula, administration of health care services, Provincial police, Provincial infrastructure, etc.- while the Caesar administers the rest, with the Constitution stating that any conflicts or omissions resolves with the Caesar. The Constitution itself can be modified, but only after each Province approves the modification.
These are territories that are technically independent of the Empire, but, in practice, each Commonwealth territory is a protectorate of the Empire. The Commonwealth and the Empire are bound by the Commonwealth Charter to be both free trade zones and zones of mutual defence. The Caesar is the official head of state of the Commonwealth, who holds yearly meetings with the rest of the Commonwealth leaders in the City of Buffalo with an aim to resolve any differences that may arise, though Commonwealth leaders may meet elsewhere at other times if they see fit. Representing the Caesar in each territory is the Prefect.
Effectively, Commonwealth territories have full autonomy regarding internal and regional affairs, with Rome handling global matters. Each territory features different forms of government, with some being democracies while others are dictatorial in nature. The Charter serves as the Commonwealth's constitution, and is officially an amendment to the Twelve Tables, meaning that the Caesar is the Commonwealth's top judge. Thus, the Commonwealth territories still uphold their citizens' basic freedoms and human rights and are bound to it by law, even if some realms are not technically democracies. The Commonwealth is also viewed as a Roman province in terms of the Caesarean election, although the Tables state that Commonwealth territories can send one elector per 2,000,000 people (unless their population is lower than 2 million, in which case the territory is entitled to a single elector).
These are countries that are politically independent of the Empire but still maintain an allegiance to it. The Caesar is the head of state for the Alliance but is not the head of state within the Allied states. Allied states also provide and maintain their own defence forces, although Rome will assist here as they see fit. The Alliance is bound by a mutual defence pact where an attack on one country is considered an attack on all, plus the Alliance mandates free trade across all of its territories. Travellers amongst Allied territories do not need a visa to cross the various borders but they must still pass through border checkpoints. The borders of the Alliance are monitored by local officials though they are supervised by the Roman border patrol, the Liminatei.
Caesar & Plebian Council
The Caesar is the head of state of both Imperial territories and the Commonwealth, but, for practical purposes, the Caesar administers the Empire alongside the Plebian Council. The Caesar serves as Rome's highest judge and is tasked with upholding the Twelve Tables. Technically, the Caesar cannot pass any laws himself (unless the Council declares a "state of emergency") as he must gain the approval of the Council (and vice versa), but, in practice, the Caesar consults with the public via the Roman Forum and the Council before any laws are passed, thus actual disputes are rare.
The Caesar is not elected by the public but rather nominated by provincial electors known as princeps (with each elector representing 1,000,000 people), with the eventual nominee (after securing a majority of the electors) being approved by the Council (who can vote to determine the Caesar should no nominee gain 50% of the electors, although this has yet to happen) and subsequently crowned by the Senate (who are the only institution that can officially nominate the Caesar). However, each province- including the Republican provinces- has enacted laws requiring its electors to nominate the candidate based on a public vote, enshrined in both the Tables and the provincial Constitution (foremost among them being that the Caesar cannot block his successor), making the approval process a mere formality. Every six years an election for the role of Caesar is held, and the incumbent Caesar can hold the office as long as he keeps winning those elections.
The Council, meanwhile, is elected via the popular vote, with each Councillor representing a curia of their own. Each Councillor is elected for a term of six years (with those elections occurring three years after the Cesarean election), and can represent their curiae provided the voters keep on electing them. The number of curiae is set by the Twelve Tables, which require an update based on the Roman Census to the amount of Councillors after three Cesarean election cycles, which is 18 years, with each curia representing one million people. In order for laws to pass within the Council, a simple majority is needed.
After each Cesarean election, the Council votes on a Tribune, whose role is to facilitate debate within the Council as well as to liaise with the Caesar. The Tribune is always drawn from amongst the current group of Councillors, and may be re-elected as many times as the Council wishes. The Tribune's actual authority is limited, restricted to maintaining discipline within the Council (which includes calling for a vote to expel an unruly member) and only voting on measures should the original Council vote result in a tie. Nevertheless, the Tribune is next in the line of succession should anything happen to the Caesar, and is technically the second most powerful person in the Empire.
Brazil is the informal grouping of Imperial provinces that became known for supplying the Empire with sappanwood (also known as brazilwood). Officially they are a collection of 26 provinces in South America and two on the Indian subcontinent (Sindh and Rajasthan). The group does not have a shared political or social culture, as it is home to many different peoples, although the group tends to be seen from time to time as a political counterweight to the Republic owing to its size.
Regionally Influential Proconsuls
Three other Imperial Provinces- Texas, New Zealand and Panama- have Proconsuls that exert considerable influence on their region's politics, if not the wider world at times. They do not have a special status according to the Twelve Tables, but because of their locations in the world, their political culture and policies are somewhat different than the rest of the Empire. They are somewhat more independent in their policymaking than other Provinces, and have region-specific needs that the Empire will attend to for its own benefit.
Law and Order
Law enforcement in Rome is divided into three different categories- the Vigiles (local police), the Urban Cohorts (national police) and the Agentes in Rebus (central intelligence unit, with the name often shortened to simply "Agentes").
For both the Vigiles and the Urban Cohort, the ranks within the Cohorts follow the same as they do in the military (meaning the second in command is the Primus Pilus), with their division appended to their title (for example, the Primus Pilus in a Provincial Cohort would be the Primus Pilus of the Provincial Cohort, with the province name substituted for "Provincial").
The Cohortes Vigilum ("Cohort of the Watchmen"), often referred to as simply the Vigiles ("Watchmen") are the law enforcement unit that exists at both the municipal level. Their function is to deal with crimes that occur with or deal entirely with the city they represent, as well as to be the "local patrol" for the entire municipality or just a neighbourhood, depending on the size of the city in question. Bigger cities will have multiple Cohorts with each assigned to a specific section, responsible for the issues within that area. Unlike other countries, which have a separate department for the function, the Watchmen also serve as the city's fire protection unit, and it is quite common for many serving within the Watchmen to be adept at both policing and at fire and rescue. Each Watchmen unit is led by the local Prefect of the Watch, with larger cities falling under the command of a City Cohort led by the City Prefect.
Within the Watchmen, the Centurions are the ones that are tasked with the investigative duties (being comparable to the detectives of other countries), with lower ranked officers tasked with patrolling the streets. Those on patrol are ranked in accordance to the ranks of a Century, though informally they are simply known as "watchmen" (or "watchwomen" for the female equivalent).
The Urban Cohort are the police unit that exists at the national level. There are four divisions of the Cohort within its administration:
- The Provincial Cohorts, present in each of the provinces which provides law enforcement services at the provincial level and co-ordinates activities with the Vigiles, if needed.
- The Roman Special Crimes unit, which deals with matters that are specific to national interests, such as anti-terrorism or smuggling, or cases that require a particular brand of expertise, such as the newly created criminal profiling unit, the Roman Behavioural Crimes unit.
- The Imperial Watchmen (more formally known as the Vigilum Cohortes Imperiale, or the "Imperial Watchmen Cohort"), billed as the Romans' top criminal investigative unit, assigned to crimes that are high profile or of extreme Imperial importance.
- The Praetorian Guard, who serve as special agents assigned to protect government officials, as well as to investigate improprieties committed by said officials.
- The Liminatei, who serve as Rome's border patrol.
Each division is led by its own Prefect, with the Urban Cohort overall being led by the Urban Prefect, except for the Praetorian Guard, who answer directly to the Caesar, and the Imperial Watchmen, who answer directly to the Urban Prefect. The Prefect's exact title is the "Prefect of the Watch for (division)" (for example, the Roman Special Crimes Unit would be led by the Prefect of the Watch for the Roman Special Crimes Unit) or, in the provincial context, it is the "Prefect of the Provincial Watch", with the name of the province being substituted for "Provincial". The title does get shortened to simply "Prefect of the Watch" or simply "Prefect" from time to time, even in formal settings.
Agentes in Rebus
The Agentes in Rebus (or simply "Agentes") are Rome's primary intelligence unit. Though more known for its espionage activites, the Agentes' primary function is to gather data on both internal and external subjects in order to monitor for criminal activity or for other information that is related to national interests. The extent of their monitoring and information gathering is restricted by law and by amendments made to the Twelve Tables, done to ease concerns of the Agentes "overstepping their boundaries". Overseeing the Agentes is the Magister Militum.
Roman Commonwealth Marquee Patrol
The Roman Commonwealth Marquee Patrol is a multi-national law enforcement agency responsible for overseeing law enforcement in territories that are affiliated with Rome but are not provinces- i.e., the Commonwealth, the Alliance and the North American Union (a Roman client state). Funding and staffing for the RCMP is proportional to the states it serves, and its usage is optional for Alliance states (though only Scotland and Morocco do not have the RCMP). In the states where it is present, it is the top level of law enforcement and order maintenance, serving in the same capacity as the Vigiles do in Rome. Overseeing the Patrol is the Patrol Prefect, whose office is in Buffalo.
Main article: Society in Rome
Strictly speaking, there are no legal distinctions outlining different classes of the Roman populace, but, in practice, the ideals of "plebeian" and "patrician" still exist today. The two groups more or less fall into the groups that had existed in Ancient times- i.e., the plebeians being the "common" folk while the patricians were the "wealthier" folk- but today, demeanour as opposed to outright wealth is the determining factor. Anyone who tends towards populism and populist ideas tends to be branded a plebeian, while someone who is "business-oriented" tend to get branded a patrician. Both terms can be used as terms of endearment and as epithets, although it is more common for "plebeian" to be used as a term of endearment and "patrician" to be used as an epithet.
Thus, politically, divisions are typically along plebeian and patrician lines, as opposed to the more "normal" lines of "conservatism" and "liberalism" that exists in other countries. This is because although many different spectra of the political universe exist within Roman territories, Roman society is liberal by nature, as, in general, Romans like to keep an open mind about things and the ideals of equality and freedom of expression are tenets that Romans have defended for centuries.
While this has led to a lot of divisions within Roman society, what prevents the society from falling apart is the Roman cultural sense of communalism. Here, individual communities and their needs and differences are respected, with the expectation that this does not lead to selfishness and that communities help each other out. Thus, while a high degree of individualism occurs, it is still expected that the individual does not put themselves before the state.
Another constant of Roman society is their unparalleled work ethic, which is so great that Roman laws had to be enacted to ensure that Roman citizens were taking time off work each day and had at least one day off a week, because the Romans themselves could not be counted to do so on their own.
Culturally, Romans are known for their spectacle, gobbling up many different kinds of entertainment. The most popular forms are those of excitement, meaning that action movies tend to make the most profits and "fast" sports, such as hockey, rugby, basketball and soccer dominate the cultural landscape. The most popular sport are gladiatorial combats or "munera", which maintain the same guidelines as the Ancient practice except for the fact that extreme physical violence (including death) is banned and the fact that gladiators are now willing participants and not slaves. Women are also allowed to become gladiators, and are even able to fight against the men. The munera thus have become a multi-billion Coin industry, with the best gladiators becoming extremely wealthy global superstars. From September 5-19, as the highlight of the Ludi Romani festivities, the best gladiators are invited to compete in a tournament that is widely considered to be the official Roman championship.
Roman media networks
The Empire is home to thousands of different types of media networks, owing to its large size and diverse crowds. All are independent of the government, and the decisions for what each network airs is entirely up to the station itself.
Here is a list of the major networks across the Roman world:
- Roman Free Press- The Empire's largest news network, it has been in publication since 1542, when Decius Capitolinus believed an independent newspaper would best be able to hold the Emperors accountable. The RFP still offers its widely circulated print edition, but it has since expanded to radio, television and online markets. The RFP also broadcasts programming that is not strictly news, although it is widely considered inferior to the offerings on other Roman networks, as the RFP pours the vast majority of its resources into its news division.
- Electronic Arts- The Empire's largest "mass media" network, EA was founded in 1899 as an "entertainment wire service" before eventually expanding into radio, television, print and online publications by 1991. Its Electronic Arts Sports Network (EASN) is the Empire's largest sports broadcaster, being the exclusive home of the Ludi Romani's gladiatorial combats.
- 2K- The 2K network is EA's primary competition in the mass media market. It was founded in 1922 as Rome's first UHF television broadcaster (hence its name- its transmitter could produce 2MW of signal strength, two thousand times more than any other transmitter in the world). It too has offerings in television, radio, print and online, and its 2K Sports network is EASN's chief rival. 2K is known for its "outside the box" approach, giving it a reputation for being "hipper" and "edgier" than the more stoic EA.
- NBC- The National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) came into the Roman world's orbit when Gaius Servius bought General Electric (GE) in 1992. As EA and 2K expanded into the North American media network by buying the affiliates of the since collapsed North American networks (such as CTV and CBS), Servius- a native of Buffalo- sought to preserve one of those networks, buying NBC and expanding it into the wider Roman world. It also has multiple publication offerings and has a sports division much like EA and 2K, but its sports division is a distant third to the other two networks. However, after GE bought the Cable News Network (CNN) in 1993 and paired it with its NBC division, it is the Roman mass media network with what is regarded as the best news coverage within the Roman world, on par with the RFP.
- Pencil- The Pencil network is the fifth largest mass media network in the Roman world. It was founded in 1932 as a competitor to EA and 2K, but, despite respectable numbers, it is consistently behind the two companies. Like the rest of the mass media networks, it too offers a wide variety of publications over many different formats as well as a wide array of programming, but is has gained a name for itself as Rome's primary "arts" network, being the primary broadcaster for theatre works and visual arts exhibits.
Main article: Fashion in the Roman Empire
Fashion within the Roman Empire has evolved greatly since the Classical period. This is due to the natural progression of time since that period as well as the expansion of the Empire bringing the Romans into contact with various different cultures, allowing those cultures to influence Roman society. Today, the fashion styles en vogue depend greatly on the region of the Empire that one is in, as fashion trends tend to follow the trends seen in that area of the world.
One fashion trend notable to Roman society is the wide acceptance of nudity within Imperial societies. Although it is not as pervasive as it is in Casara, in certain situations- such as the beach or the park- it is not uncommon or frowned upon for people to be completely nude, regardless of age, ethnicity or gender. There is also no base association with sexuality with nudity, unlike within many cultures within the Virtue Federation. At festivals and other celebratory gatherings, nudity is also quite common, with some festival rituals even requiring nudity among participants. Officially, there are no laws banning nudity in public, although- for sanitary reasons- in public facilities where it is expected that one takes a seat (such as public transport), people are required to wear some kind of "bottom". Private institutions may also have their own rules regarding appropriate levels of dress among patrons.
Toga and Stola
The other notable fashion style across the Empire is that of the toga and stola. In the Classical period, the garment of choice depended on gender, with men wearing the toga and women wearing the stola, with attitudes being that if one wore the other type of garment (especially a woman donning a toga) it was seen as unacceptable. Attitudes have changed since then owing to the influence of Prudence in the 18th century, with society now seeing no issue at all when someone of either gender opts for the toga or stola. Even still, today it is more typical for a male to wear a toga and a woman to wear a stola than vice versa.
The garments are more or less the same since their introduction early in Rome's history, though they have evolved to adapt to the times. Contrary to popular belief, the toga and stola are not common choices of clothing amongst the Roman people. They are usually reserved for more formal settings, but even then their usage is not universal, with Romans picking up other forms of formal wear such as business suits or evening gowns common in other parts of the world. In state functions and other ceremonial duties featuring state officials, the wearing of the toga and stola is more typical of the participating statesman or stateswoman, even though it is not required. Every Emperor and Empress since Julius Nepos has worn the toga and stola (respectively) in their official portraits, and, since they are seen as symbols of the Roman Empire, the Emperor and Empress will wear the garments for any state function, even abroad. Other government officials typically follow suit, though this is not required of them.
Education in Rome is heavily state-subsidized, largely through a system of grants where the State will cover some or all the costs of the educational component for families who are shown to be unable to afford the costs on their own. This is because education is seen in Rome as the "benchmark" for a functioning, civil society, especially in light of Rome's turn towards a greater emphasis on democracy. Primary education is completely state-funded, operating a system of schools known as the ludi litterarum (singular "ludus litterarius"), taught by teachers known as "litterators" (or "litteratus"). Curriculum is set by the Provinces, but in each case, every student is taught as wide an array of subjects as possible. There are two stages of the ludus litterarius, the first stage typically covering the ages of 4 to 10 and the second typically covering the ages of 11 to 15.
After the second stage of ludus litterarius, students have the option of directly entering the military (where their education continues), the workforce, signing up with an apprentice or continuing on to higher education in the form of grammar and rhetorical schools. Companies that sponsor apprenticeships receive tax breaks from the State, while apprentices that teach students on their own time are paid directly by the parents (with the State subsidizing the costs if need be).
Higher education typically covers the ages of 16 to 19, and involves more student involvement and independent learning in their own schoolwork than in lower levels of education. Students pick one of kind of school or the other, and are expected to "specialize" by the end of their studies. Rhetorical schools cover more intellectual topics, such as sociology, math, history, economics, and the sciences (like the "hard" sciences like biology, chemistry and physics and the "soft" sciences like politics, sociology and psychology), while grammar school typically covers the arts, like music, literature and humanities. Like apprenticeships, fees are paid by the parents directly, although the State will subsidize the costs if the need arises.
Following grammar and rhetoric schools is philosophical education, which are more advanced stages of education from grammar and rhetoric schools. Philosophical education is more specialized education than at the previous levels, with requirements for completion depending on the subject. Generally, schooling is divided into two parts- the first level is the pursuit of the simple accreditation of "Philosopher" in their subject, with the next level enabling the student to become a "Master Philosopher" in their subject (meaning, say, a student can pursue becoming a Philosopher of History or a Master Philosopher of History). Earning the title of Master Philosopher typically involves engaging in novel research in the subject, with the findings required to pass the peer review of other Master Philosophers in the subject.
Not all subjects follow the "Philosopher-Master Philosopher" trajectory. Some subjects, such as surgical medicine, are only available as a combined "Philosopher-Master Philosopher" course, while other subjects, like teaching, require the prospective student to gain Philosophical accreditation in a particular subject before they can pursue that particular Philosophical subject.
Like other levels of schooling, the State will subsidize the finances to those in need, although, unlike lower levels, students still will need to pay a minimum of
Main article: Economy of Rome
The Roman economy is a mixed-market economy and is the world's strongest, with a gross domestic product (adjusted for purchasing power parity) of
X82 trillion. Because of the expansiveness of its territories, Rome is incredibly self-sufficient, and often has surpluses that allow it to make multiple advantageous trade agreements with other countries. Its chief exports are oil, marble, lumber and services, with its primary trading partners being Casara, the North American Union, and Scotland.